The phenomenon of migration by relying on the human factor has many effects, especially on the immigrant country, to the extent that the increase in the population of immigrants affects the economic, political, cultural and social conditions of societies and challenges the national interests of governments. Migration is one of the social phenomena that leave many effects in different societies.

One of the phenomena that are directly related to the political, security, economic, social and cultural situation of the world is migration.
This article identifies the factors that, if present, are not only an opportunity but also a threat to migration.

Therefore, if the phenomenon of migration is properly managed and managed, it is an opportunity that will bring many benefits to countries; otherwise it will threaten the countries of origin and destination.

Immigration history

Migration is a phenomenon that has been associated with human creation and has occurred for various reasons such as insecurity, food shortages, war, unemployment, poverty, prejudice, and the use of educational, health, and recreational facilities. In recent decades, differences in living standards in urban and rural areas on the one hand and in the capital and central parts on the other, have led to widespread migration from rural to large urban centers and from different cities to different cities. International migration is still a phenomenon that has always occurred in human history, the migration of Native Americans from Asia to the Americas. European migration to the Americas, Africa and the Far East, Tamil migration from India to Sri Lanka, Asian and African migration to Europe and Vietnamese
migration to different parts of the world, Bangladeshi migration to India and …. Afghan migration to Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, Tajikistan and Europe are examples of international migration.

The complexities of migration flows in Asia

Illegal immigration the main reason for illegal immigration to Asia is the simultaneous existence of labor demand in the destination countries and the legal restrictions resulting from the implementation of regulatory policies by governments to enter the labor force needed in these countries. There are three general forms of illegal immigration in Asia:

A. Immigrants enter another country without a permit.

B. Immigrants enter the country of destination legally, but are not allowed to stay for a long time or work.

C- Immigrants enter the destination country legally, they are also given a work permit, but the form and type of their work is illegal. For example, their working hours are limited, but they work longer than their license period. Or they are banned from working in a number of jobs but work in those jobs. Or violate labor laws (for example, maximum working hours).

Data on illegal immigration are inherently limited. But it is clear that a significant proportion of international migration in the AsiaPacific region is due to illegal migration. According to the United Nations, there are about 30,000 illegal immigrants in the Maldives, which makes up about a third of the country’s total migrant workforce. – The number of illegal immigrants in Thailand fluctuates sharply due to periodic changes in policies and policy programs. The Thai government occasionally approves immigrants and, in accordance with its policies, legalizes the presence of some illegal immigrants. In 2013, the presence of approximately 900,000 illegal immigrants from Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar in Thailand was officially and legally registered. The number of illegal immigrants in Malaysia, most of them from Indonesia and the Philippines, is estimated at between 600,000 and 1.9 million. The number of illegal Afghans in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan is significantly higher than the number legally registered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and their governments. About 3 to 4 million illegal immigrants work in the Russian Federation, which increases to 5 to 7 million in springs and
summer. About 70 to 80 percent of the migrant workforce in Russia works without a work permit. This situation has grown significantly because citizens of the former Soviet Union can enter Russia without a visa. Obtaining a work permit for Russian workers and employers is a costly and complex process. That is why everyone in Russia has turned away from it. Most migrants work illegally in Kazakhstan due to
strict employment laws, about 10,500,000 Filipinos live outside the Philippines, about 1.3 million of whom have migrated illegally. About 150,000 Vietnamese illegal immigrants live in Europe. It is estimated that about 250,000 Chinese illegal immigrants lived in Moscow in the mid-1990s. In 2012, a population of 72,000 Chinese was in the Republic of Korea illegally, and between 2000 and 2005, between 30,000 and 40,000 Chinese immigrants entered the United States illegally each year. Even when there are legal channels for immigration in the destination countries, many immigrants still choose informal and illegal ways to immigrate. In cases where the law of the destination country sets a limit on the number of immigrants (even if the admission quota is not met) or when legal immigration processes are highly bureaucratic, time consuming and costly, immigrants move away from legal immigration channels. Also, some destination countries that have visa-free entry rules allow people to travel legally, but not for work. Extensive land borders and permeable water borders facilitate illegal migration and smuggling, especially since in many cases organized networks have been set up to assist this type of migration.

Smuggling of immigrants

Smuggling of migrants’ means obtaining direct or indirect financial gain through the illegal entry of an individual into an area where he or she is not a native or permanent resident. Because immigrants usually have little knowledge and resources to enter another country illegally, they rely on the help of others to do so. These others can be friends and relatives or small-scale agents or groups involved in organized and transnational crime.

About half a million immigrants are trafficked to Thailand every year. They are often smuggled into Thailand from Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar, and Malaysia is a popular destination for smugglers. Most of these migrants come from Indonesia and the lower reaches of the Mekong River, such as Vietnam, while the Chinese continue to be smuggled into the United States and Europe. In West and Southwest Asia, Afghanistan is a major source of migrant trafficking. Most of these illegal immigrants also go to Iran and Pakistan. Some Afghanistani’s are also trafficked to the Persian Gulf, Europe, India, China and Australia. In North Asia and Central Asia, the borders of the countries are open and the passage of people is easy and without any legal obstacles. People from Central Asian countries can easily enter Russia and Kazakhstan, which is why migrant smuggling is so low in this part of Asia. The only point is that Russia and Kazakhstan and Central Asian countries are transit points for smuggled migrants from South, Southwest and Southeast Asia to European countries.



Image – UN

By Rafi Kabiri

Rafi is a UDA liaison Officer in Afghanistan at UDA Consulting - Turkey

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